Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

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Income Taxes
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes Income Taxes
 
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based upon differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The Company does not expect to pay any significant federal, state, or foreign income taxes in 2018 as a result of the losses recorded during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and the additional losses expected for the remainder of 2018 and cumulative Net Operating Losses. Accounting standards require the consideration of a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets if it is “more likely than not” that some component or all of the benefits of deferred tax assets will not be realized. As a result, as of September 30, 2018, the Company maintained a full valuation allowance for all deferred tax assets.
 
The Company recorded no income tax provision for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017. The effective tax rate for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 was 0%. The income tax rates vary from the federal and state statutory rates primarily due to the valuation allowances on the Company’s deferred tax assets. The Company estimates its annual effective tax rate at the end of each quarterly period. Jurisdictions with a projected loss for the year where no tax benefit can be recognized due to the valuation allowance could result in a higher or lower effective tax rate during a particular quarter depending on the mix and timing of actual earnings versus annual projections.

On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”) was signed into law making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code. Changes include, but are not limited to, a federal corporate tax rate decrease from 35% to 21% for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, the transition of U.S international taxation from a worldwide tax system to a territorial system, and a one-time transition tax on the mandatory deemed repatriation of foreign earnings. As of December 31, 2017, the Company estimated our provision for income taxes in accordance with the Tax Act and guidance available as of the date of the 2017 filing. The amount related to the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities, based on the rates at which they are expected to reverse in the future, was an expense of $1.6 million. Since the Company maintains a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets, there was no net impact to the Company's earnings on this remeasurement of its gross deferred tax assets. As of the date of the fourth quarter 2017 filing, we asserted that the effects of this remeasurement were a provisional amount in accordance with the guidance of Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 ("SAB 118"). As of September 30, 2018, the Company has determined that no changes are expected to the provisional amount recorded in the fourth quarter of 2017. As such, the Company considers the accounting to be complete as of the first quarter of 2018 for the remeasurement of deferred tax asset and liabilities in accordance with the Tax Act.