Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of presentation, principles of consolidation and significant accounting policies (Policies)

Basis of presentation, principles of consolidation and significant accounting policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation Basis of Presentation – Unaudited Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Information - The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for financial information, and in accordance with the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) with respect to Form 10-Q and Article 8 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements furnished reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments), which are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair statement of results for the interim periods presented. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results for the full year. These interim condensed unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and notes thereto contained in the Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 21, 2019.
Principles of consolidation Principles of consolidation - The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to U.S. GAAP. The company views its operations and manages its business in one operating segment. All long-lived assets of the Company reside in the United States.
Use of Estimates Use of Estimates - The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Management considers many factors in selecting appropriate financial accounting policies and controls, and in developing the estimates and assumptions that are used in the preparation of these financial statements. Management must apply significant judgment in this process. In addition, other factors may affect estimates, including: expected business and operational changes, sensitivity and volatility associated with the assumptions used in developing estimates, and whether historical trends are expected to be representative of future trends. The estimation process often may yield a range of potentially reasonable estimates of the ultimate future outcomes and management must select an amount that falls within that range of reasonable estimates. This process may result in actual results differing materially from those estimated amounts used in the preparation of financial statements. Estimates are used in the following areas, among others: fair value estimates on intangible assets, warrants, and stock-based compensation expense, as well as accrued expenses and taxes.
Going Concern Going Concern - These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which assumes the Company will continue to realize its assets and discharge its liabilities in the normal course of business. The continuation of the Company as a going concern is dependent upon the ability of the Company to obtain necessary equity financing to continue operations and the attainment of profitable operations. As of September 30, 2019, the Company has incurred an accumulated deficit of $35.8 million since inception and had not yet generated any revenue from operations. Additionally, management anticipates that its cash on hand as of September 30, 2019, is sufficient to fund its planned operations into but not beyond the near term. These factors raise substantial doubt regarding the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern. The Company may seek additional funding through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, government or other third-party funding, commercialization, marketing and distribution arrangements, other collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements and delay planned cash outlays or a combination thereof. Management cannot be certain that such events or a combination thereof can be achieved.
Cash and Cash Equivalents Cash and Cash Equivalents - The Company considers all highly liquid accounts with original maturities of three months or less at the date of acquisition to be cash equivalents. Periodically in the ordinary course of business, the Company may carry cash balances at financial institutions in excess of the Federally insured limits of $250,000.
Intangible assets Intangible Assets - Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated period of benefit. If an intangible asset is identified as an in-process research & development ("IPR&D") asset, then no
amortization will occur until the development is complete. If the associated research and development effort is abandoned, the related assets will be written-off and the Company will record a noncash impairment loss on its statements of operations. For those compounds that reach commercialization, if any, the IPR&D assets will be amortized over their estimated useful lives.

The Company evaluates the recoverability of intangible assets periodically and takes into account events or circumstances that warrant revised estimates of useful lives or that indicate that impairment exists. No material impairments of intangible assets have been identified during any of the periods presented. Intangible assets are tested for impairment on an annual basis, and between annual tests if the Company believes indicators of potential impairment exist, using a fair-value-based approach.
Property and Equipment, net Property and Equipment, net - Leasehold improvements, furniture, equipment and software are recorded at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the remaining lease term.
Operating Leases Right-of-Use Assets Operating Lease Right-of-Use Asset - The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at contract inception or during modifications or renewal of an existing lease. Operating lease assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and operating lease liabilities represent the Company's obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the commencement date of the lease based upon the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The lease payments used to determine the Company's operating lease assets may include lease incentives, stated rent increases and escalation clauses linked to rates of inflation when determinable and are recognized in the Company's operating lease assets in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheet. The Company has elected the practical expedient and will not separate lease components from nonlease components for its leases. The Company's operating leases are reflected in operating lease right-of-use asset ("ROU"), accrued expenses and current liabilities, and operating lease liability - long-term in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Short-term leases, defined as leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less at the commencement date, are excluded from this treatment and are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Refer to Note 7 - Commitments and Contingencies - Lease Obligations Payable for additional information related to the Company’s operating leases.
Cost Method Investments Cost Method Investment - Our cost method investment consists of an investment in a private company in which we do not have the ability to exercise significant influence over its operating and financial activities. The investment is tested for impairment quarterly.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments - The Company's financial instruments consist primarily of non-trade receivables, account payables, accrued expenses and a warrant liability. The carrying amount of non-trade receivables, accounts payables, and accrued expenses approximates their fair value because of the short-term maturity of such.
The Company has categorized its assets and liabilities that are valued at fair value on a recurring basis into a three-level fair value hierarchy in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities (Level 1) and lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3).
Assets and liabilities recorded in the balance sheets at fair value are categorized based on a hierarchy of inputs as follows:
Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets of identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly through market corroboration, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.
Loss Per Common Share Loss Per Common Share - Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss available to common shareholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. For purposes of this calculation, options to purchase common stock, restricted stock subject to vesting and warrants to purchase common stock were considered to be common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per common share is determined using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents. In periods when losses are reported, the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding excludes common stock equivalents, because their inclusion would be antidilutive. For the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, approximately 14.7 million and approximately 6.5 million, respectively, of potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share due to their antidilutive effect. For the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, approximately 11.3 million and approximately 5.0 million, respectively, of potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share due to their antidilutive effect.
Reclassifications Reclassifications - A reclassification was made to the prior period financial statements to conform to the 2019 presentation. Such reclassification did not affect net loss as previously reported. Historically, "Deferred compensation - related party" was a separate line item on the balance sheet. Management believes that this balance is best shown included in "accrued expenses and other current liabilities," and, as such, a reclassification was made to the balance sheet for the period ended December 31, 2018 to include "deferred compensation - related party" in with "accrued liabilities and other current liabilities." Additionally, interim disclosures pertaining to stockholders' equity are shown for current and comparative year-to-date periods, with subtotals for each interim period.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016-02”). Under ASU 2016-02, an entity will be required to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. ASU 2016-02 offers specific accounting guidance for a lessee, a lessor and sale and leaseback transactions. Lessees and lessors are required to disclose qualitative and quantitative information about leasing arrangements to enable a user of the financial statements to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. For public companies, ASU 2016-02 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that reporting period, and requires a modified retrospective adoption, with early adoption permitted. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases Targeted Improvements ("ASU 2018-11"). In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU. No. 2019-01, Leases ("ASU 2019-01"). ASU 2019-01 and 2018-11 assists stakeholders with implementation questions and issues as organizations prepare to adopt the new leases standard. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2019 and used the effective date of initial application using the modified retrospective transition method. Upon adoption there was no cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2019. Therefore, prior period financial information has not been adjusted and continues to be reflected in accordance with the Company's historical accounting policy. The standard establishes a ROU asset model that requires the lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. (see Note 7. Commitments and Contingencies - Lease Obligations Payable).
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Improvements to Non-employee Share-Based Payment Accounting ("ASU 2018-07"). ASU 2018-07 affects all entities that enter into share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from non-employees. The amendments in this ASU expand the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from non-employees. The amendments in this ASU are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. Early adoption permitted, but no earlier than an entity's adoption date of Topic 606. The adoption of this pronouncement did not have a material impact on the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) ("ASU 2018-13"). ASU 2018-13 modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, based on the concepts in the Concepts Statement, including the consideration of costs and benefits. The amendments in this ASU are effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted upon issuance of this ASU. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that this standard will have, if any, on its financial statements.